Most ear surgery is microsurgical, performed using an operating microscope to enable the surgeon to view the very small structures of the ear.
Perforations in the ear drum, a common problem among children, occur due to an infection or as a result of an injury. Drainage from the ear or bloody discharges are symptoms of a perforated ear. In such cases, an ENT specialist would probably recommend a microscopic ear surgery.
One such common surgery of this kind is the Tympanoplasty, also called "eardrum repair", which is conducted to reconstruct a perforated eardrum or repair the small bones found in the middle of the ear.
The examining physician performs a complete physical with diagnostic testing of the ear, which includes an audiogram and history of the hearing loss, as well as any vertigo or facial weakness. A microscopic exam is also performed.
The purpose of tympanoplasty is to repair the perforated eardrum, and sometimes the middle ear bones (ossicles) that consist of the incus, malleus, and stapes. Tympanic membrane grafting may be required.
The process is initiated by making an incision into the ear canal. The view of the area of surgery is enlarged using a microscope.
Then, the bones that aid hearing are first inspected for any damages. A graft is taken from the vein or tissues under the ear lobe to reconstruct the tympanic membrane, if it is required. The ear is then stitched together where the stitches are buried under the skin and they need not have to be removed later.
Surgeries like Mastoidectomy with Ossiculoplasty are done in similar way to clear Cholesteatoma from Mastoid Bone and Ear ossicles. A mastoidectomy is a procedure performed to remove the mastoid air cells. This can be done as part of treatment for mastoiditis, chronic suppurative otitis media or cholesteatoma.
Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) uses a rigid 'Hopkins rod' telescope to treat recurring sinusitis that has not responded to non-surgical treatment.
CT scanning will be carried out before the operation to take pictures of 'slices' through the sinuses. You will have to lie still in the scanner for up to 10 minutes. Some people find this claustrophobic, but it is not painful, and the amount of radiation used is low.
FESS is usually performed under general anaesthetic as a day-care procedure. It takes from 30 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the amount of disease. First the natural hole into the sinus in the cheekbone is enlarged. Other sinuses may then be cleared and ventilated, depending on where the disease is located.
Any pain after FESS is usually mild. There is a discharge of old clots and crusts from the nose for about 3 weeks. The most common problem is bleeding, and your nose may be packed to control this. You may also be given antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.
Long-term steroid nasal spray use improves the results. Rarely, the roof or sides of the nose can be damaged, causing a leak of brain (cerebrospinal) fluid or eyesight damage. The former is correctable, the latter may not be.
The nasal septum is the piece of cartilage that divides the inside of the front of the nose into two compartments. Often, it is bent to one side and can block the nose. Septoplasty and submucosal resection of the septum are performed to straighten the nasal septum. These procedures may also be a part of other operations, such as endoscopic sinus surgery or septorhinoplasty.
The operation is usually performed as a day-case procedure under local or general anaesthetic. Occasionally, it is necessary to stay in hospital overnight if there is a lot of bleeding and your nose has to be packed.
A local anaesthetic solution is injected under the skin lining the nose, via the nostril. This raises the lining and reduces bleeding. The lining is lifted up on one or both sides, and the bent parts of the septum are removed (submucosal resection) or reshaped (septoplasty) to give a flat surface. The lining is then replaced and an absorbable stitch used to close the wound.
Usually, pain is mild and easily controlled with simple painkillers. The difference between septoplasty and submucosal resection is that septoplasty preserves as much cartilage as possible. It is generally preferred to submucosal resection nowadays.
Microscopic laryngeal surgery, otherwise known as microlaryngoscopy, is the most precise means of visualizing and operating on the vocal folds. It allows the use of the two most essential tool sets in laryngeal surgery: the operative microscope, and microlaryngeal dissection instruments. All surgery is done through a laryngoscope, an instrument inserted via the mouth, without the need to make skin incisions.
Microlaryngoscopy is a surgical technique used in the evaluation and removal of various lesions of the vocal folds, including (but not limited to): cancer, cysts, papilloma, polyps, and Reinke’s edema. Microlaryngoscopy is performed while the patient is under general anesthesia, administered and monitored by an anesthesiologist working in close collaboration with the surgeon.
Despite the use of general anesthesia, it remains an ambulatory procedure - allowing a patient to go home the same day as the procedure, which takes approximately one hour. Pain after surgery is not severe, and rarely requires more than over-the-counter pain relievers.
Complications arising from microscopic laryngeal surgery are rare. They can include temporary numbness or tingling of the tongue, and damage to teeth - especially in the presence of crowns, caps and veneers, or if the teeth are in poor condition to begin with. The most challenging complication is vocal fold scar.
Tonsillectomy is surgery to remove the tonsils. It is usually performed to treat repeated episodes of tonsillitis, and sometimes for sleep apnoea. Tonsillectomy usually takes 15–30 minutes and is carried out under general anaesthetic. The operation is performed through the open mouth. The tonsils are cut away and bleeding is stopped by tying off or heating the ends of the blood vessels.
Patients usually stay in hospital overnight but may be allowed home on the same day if they feel well enough and live close to the hospital. It is important that you are not alone at home, and that you have access to a telephone in case bleeding occurs.
You will feel pain after the operation, though young children seem to suffer less than older children and adults, who may need to take strong painkillers for several days. Pain is often felt in the ears, but this does not mean that the operation has caused an ear infection.
You must try to eat and drink normally during this period even though it is uncomfortable, as chewing prevents the build-up of large scabs in the throat that can harbour infection.
Bleeding occurs in about 2% of patients, most of whom are still in hospital. If bleeding starts later, you should return to hospital immediately. Rarely, another operation under anaesthesia will be needed to stop the bleeding.
Adenoidectomy is an operation to remove the adenoids. It is performed when the adenoids are so large that they block the eustachian tube, causing glue ear, or block the nose, causing breathing problems. The adenoids start shrinking after 6–7 years of age and rarely cause problems after 10 years of age.
The operation is usually performed under general anaesthetic as a day-case procedure, unless the tonsils are removed at the same time. The operation takes about 10 minutes. If the tonsils are removed at the same time, an overnight stay in hospital may be needed.
Adenoidectomy is performed through the open mouth with a special instrument holding the mouth open. A curette, which is a spoon-shaped instrument, is used to scrape away the soft, blancmange-like adenoids. A swab is then applied until the bleeding stops. The discomfort after the operation lasts only a few days and is easily controlled with paracetamol.
Bleeding occurs in about 1–2% of patients, most of whom will still be in hospital when it starts. If bleeding starts later, the child should be taken back to the hospital as quickly as possible. Rarely, another operation under anaesthesia will be needed to stop the bleeding.
The turbinates are the thick ‘shelves’ on each side of the nasal cavity. They have a bony centre covered by a thick membrane.
The lowest turbinate can become persistently swollen because of inflammation (rhinosinusitis), and your nose may become blocked. If nasal sprays do not work, the nasal airway can be unblocked by removing part of the turbinates.
The operation is often performed as a day-case procedure under general anaesthetic, and takes about 10 minutes. The turbinates are trimmed away using a special pair of scissors via the nostril. This procedure is called turbinectomy. Nasal packs are used for a few hours.
Occasionally, it is necessary to stay in hospital overnight if there is a lot of bleeding, and the packing may have to stay in place. Normal activities can usually be resumed after about a week.
Diathermy is an alternative to turbinectomy, and is more appropriate for children. Heat is used to reduce the size of the turbinate. Increasingly, this procedure is being performed by laser, with good results. It can be carried out under local anaesthetic as a day-case procedure. Although the size of the turbinates may not be reduced as much as with turbinectomy, it may be enough to allow medication to get into the nose more effectively.
A nasal fracture, commonly referred to as a broken nose, is a fracture of one of the bones of the nose. Symptoms may include bleeding, swelling, bruising, and an inability to breathe through the nose. They may be complicated by other facial fractures or a septal hematoma.
The most common causes include assault, trauma during sports, falls, and motor vehicle collisions. Diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms and may occasionally be confirmed by plain X-ray. Nasal fractures are caused by physical trauma to the face.
Common sources of nasal fractures include sports injuries, fighting, falls, and car accidents in the younger age groups, and falls from syncope or impaired balance.
Treatment is typically with pain medication and cold compresses. Reduction, if needed, can typically occur after the swelling has come down. Depending on the type of fracture reduction may be closed or open. Outcomes are generally good.
Thyroid is shaped like a small butterfly, and is usually found inside the lower front of your neck. It’s a gland that controls your metabolism. It also releases hormones that direct many functions in your body, including how you use energy, how you produce heat, and how you consume oxygen.
Thyroid cancer develops when cells genetically mutate or change. The abnormal cells begin multiplying in your thyroid and, once there are enough of them, they form a tumor.
A few thyroid nodules are cancerous (malignant), but determining which nodules are malignant can't be done by symptoms alone. Most cancerous thyroid nodules are slow growing and may be small when they're discovered. Aggressive thyroid cancers are rare, but these nodules may be large, firm, fixed and rapid growing.
If cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes in the neck, these will be removed at the same time surgery is done on the thyroid. This is especially important for treatment of medullary thyroid cancer and for anaplastic cancer.
Half (hemi) and complete thyroid removal is done for a wide variety of conditions such as nodules & cysts in thyroid to cancer in thyroid. Surgery is done preserving nerves which supply vocal cords and preserving para-thyroid glands which maintain calcium levels in blood.
Oral cancer appears as a growth or sore in the mouth that does not go away. The development of velvety white, red, or speckled (white and red) patches in the mouth. Unexplained bleeding in the mouth. Unexplained numbness, loss of feeling, or pain/tenderness in any area of the face, mouth, or neck.
Persistent sores on the face, neck, or mouth that bleed easily and do not heal within 2 weeks. A soreness or feeling that something is caught in the back of the throat. Difficulty chewing or swallowing, speaking, or moving the jaw or tongue. Hoarseness, chronic sore throat, or change in voice. A change in the way your teeth or dentures fit together.
Surgery for parotid gland is a delicate surgery due to proximity of facial nerve, which if inadvertently damaged could lead to facial weakness. Excision of swellings or tumors in parotid is done after completely preserving facial nerve.
Facial trauma, also called maxillofacial trauma, is any physical trauma to the face. Facial trauma can involve soft tissue injuries such as burns, lacerations and bruises, or fractures of the facial bones such as nasal fractures and fractures of the jaw, as well as trauma such as eye injuries. Symptoms are specific to the type of injury; for example, fractures may involve pain, swelling, loss of function, or changes in the shape of facial structures.
Facial injuries have the potential to cause disfigurement and loss of function; for example, blindness or difficulty moving the jaw can result. Although it is seldom life-threatening, facial trauma can also be deadly, because it can cause severe bleeding or interference with the airway; thus a primary concern in treatment is ensuring that the airway is open and not threatened so that the patient can breathe.
Depending on the type of facial injury, treatment may include bandaging and suturing of open wounds, administration of ice, antibiotics and pain killers, moving bones back into place, and surgery. When fractures are suspected, radiography is used for diagnosis. Treatment may also be necessary for other injuries such as traumatic brain injury, which commonly accompany severe facial trauma.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not. Often it feels like a spinning or swaying movement. This may be associated with nausea, vomiting, sweating, or difficulties walking. It is typically worse when the head is moved. Vertigo is the most common type of dizziness.
Vertigo that is caused by problems with the inner ear or vestibular system, which is composed of the semicircular canals, the vestibule (utricle and saccule), and the vestibular nerve is called "peripheral", "otologic" or "vestibular" vertigo. The most common cause is Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV), which accounts for 32% of all peripheral vertigo.
Deafness, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. In children hearing problems can affect the ability to learn spoken language and in adults it can cause work related difficulties. In some people, particularly older people, hearing loss can result in loneliness. Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent.
Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins. A common condition that results in hearing loss is chronic ear infections. Certain infections during pregnancy such as syphilis and rubella may also cause hearing loss in the child.
Hearing all the sound properly, like that speech, traffic noise etc, through Hearing Aids. In general, Hearing Aids is the mediator between the inner canal and outsource sound. Hearing work for passing the sound waves into the electrical signal. Hearing aids work differently depending on the electronics used. The two main types of electronics are analog and digital. The main component of Hearing Aid are Microphone, Amplifier, speaker, batteries. Deaf people using the hearing aid they can easily communicate with other, listen any sound clearly. The electrical signal is sent to the receiver which acts like a tiny loudspeaker then converts the information back into sounds you can hear. If you wear a Hearing Aids while trouble the hearing during that time hearing aids working differently they automatic change their hearing setting depending on your requirement.
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